Endnotes

Background

[1] Mack, V. (2015). New Orleans kids, working parents, and poverty. The Data Center. Retrieved from http://www.datacenterresearch.org/reports_analysis/new-orleans-kids-working-parents-and-poverty/

[2] Plyer, A., Shrinath, N., & Mack, V. (2015). The New Orleans index at ten: Measuring greater New Orleans’ progress towards prosperity. The Data Center. Retrieved from http://www.datacenterresearch.org/reports_analysis/new-orleans-index-at-ten/

Indicators

HEALTH AND WELL-BEING

[1] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015). Protect your baby with immunization. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/features/infantimmunization/

[2] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015). Protect your child at every age. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/parents/downloads/vaccines-children.pdf

[3] State of Louisiana: Children’s Cabinet. (2015). Louisiana kids dashboard: Health care: Immunizations: 19-35 months. Retrieved from http://www.kidsdashboard.la.gov/

[4] State of Louisiana: Children’s Cabinet. (2015). Louisiana kids dashboard: Health care: Immunizations: 19-35 months. Retrieved from http://www.kidsdashboard.la.gov/

[5] Centers for Disease Control. Childhood obesity facts. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/healthyschools/obesity/facts.htm

[6] Ibid

[7] Ibid

[8] Shanklin, S., Brener, N. D., Kann, L., Griffin-Blake, S., Ussery-Hall, A., Easton, A., & Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2008). Youth risk behavior surveillance—selected Steps communities, United States, 2007. MMWR Surveill Summ, 57(12), 1-27. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss5712a1.htm

[9] Ibid

[10] Ibid

[11] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Physical activity facts. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/healthyschools/physicalactivity/facts.htm

[12] Ibid

[13] Ibid

[14] Ibid

[15] Ibid

[16] Ibid

[17] U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Infant mortality. Retrieved from  http://mchb.hrsa.gov/infantmortality/

[18] Ibid

[19] MacDorman, M.F. & Mathews, T.J.(2008). Recent trends in infant mortality in the United States. NCHS data brief, no 9. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db09.htm

[20] United States Department of Health and Human Services (US DHHS), Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Division of Vital Statistics (DVS). (n.d.). Linked birth / infant death records 2007-2013, as compiled from data provided by the 57 vital statistics jurisdictions through the Vital Statistics Cooperative Program, on CDC WONDER On-line Database. Retrieved from http://wonder.cdc.gov/lbd-current.html March of Dime Peristats. (2015). Infant mortality rates: United States, 2002-2012. Retrieved from http://www.marchofdimes.org/Peristats/ViewSubtopic.aspx?reg=99&top=6&stop=91&lev=1&slev=1&obj=1

[21] U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration, Maternal and Child Health Bureau. (2012). Child health USA 2012. Rockville, Maryland: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from http://mchb.hrsa.gov/chusa12/hs/hsi/pages/lbwvlbw.html

[22] March of Dimes. (2014). Low birthweight. Retrieved from http://www.marchofdimes.org/baby/low-birthweight.aspx

[23] U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration, Maternal and Child Health Bureau. (2013). Child health USA 2013. Retrieved from http://mchb.hrsa.gov/chusa13/perinatal-health-status-indicators/p/preterm-birth.html

[24] Behrman, R. E., & Butler, A. S (Eds.). (2007). Preterm Birth: Causes, Consequences, and Prevention. National Academies Press. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20669423

[25] March of Dimes Peristats. (2015). Retrieved from http://www.marchofdimes.org/peristats/ViewSubtopic.aspx?reg=22071&top=2&stop=10&lev=1&obj=8&cmp=22&slev=5&sty=9999&eny=-1&chy=

 

[26] Wildsmith, E., Barrt, M., Manlove, J., & Vaugh, B. (2013). Adolescent health highlight: Teen pregnancy and childbearing. Retrieved from http://www.childtrends.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/Pregnancy-and-Childbearing-updated-12-131.pdf

[27] Ibid

[28] Annie E. Casey Kids Count Data Center. (2015). Teen birth rate: Ages 15-19.  Retrieved from http://datacenter.kidscount.org/data/tables/1561-teen-birth-rate-ages-15-19?loc=20&loct=5#detailed/5/3220-3283/false/867,133,38,35,18/any/3329,7826

[29] Child Welfare Information Gateway. (2013). Long-term consequences of child abuse and neglect.Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Children’s Bureau. Retrieved from https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubPDFs/long_term_consequences.pdf#page=7&view=Summary

[30] Ibid

[31] Committee on Child Maltreatment Research, Policy, and Practice for the Next Decade: Phase II; Board on Children, Youth, and Families; Committee on Law and Justice; Institute of Medicine; National Research Council. (2014). Describing the problem. In Petersen, A., Joseph, J., & Feit, M. (Eds). New directions in child abuse and neglect research (pp.1-30). National Academies Press. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK195982/

[32] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). Child maltreatment: Facts at a glance. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/childmaltreatment-facts-at-a-glance.pdf

ECONOMIC STABILITY

[33] National Scientific Council on the Developing Child. (2005/2014). Excessive Stress Disrupts the Architecture of the Developing Brain: Working Paper 3. Updated Edition. http://www.developingchild.harvard.edu

[34] Ibid

[35] National Center for Children in Poverty, (2014). Child poverty. Retrieved from http://www.nccp.org/topics/childpoverty.html

[36] U.S. Census Bureau. (2015). Poverty thresholds. Retrieved from https://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty/data/threshld/

[37] Yazejian, N., & Bryant, D. M. (2012). Educare Implementation Study Findings—August 2012. Chapel Hill: Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute, UNC-CH. Retrieved from, http://www.educareschools.org/about/pdfs/Demonstrating-Results.pdf.

[38] Shonkoff, J. P., & Phillips, D. (Ed.). (2000). From neurons to neighborhoods: The science of early childhood development. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Retrieved from http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=9824&page=R1

[39] Offord Centre for Child Studies. (2012). School readiness to learn project: EDI factsheet. Retrieved September 28, 2013 from, http://www.offordcentre.com/readiness/EDI_factsheet.html.

[40] Janus, M., Brinkman, S., Duku, E., Hertzman, C., Santos, R., Sayers, M., …, Walsh, C. (2007). The Early Development Instrument: A population-based measure for communities. A handbook on development, properties, and use. Toronto, CA: Offord Centre for Child Studies. Retrieved from http://www.offordcentre.com/readiness/pubs/2007_12_FINAL.EDI.HANDBOOK.pdf; Janus, M., Harren, T., Duku, E. (2004). Neighbourhood perspective on school readiness in kindergarten, academic testing in grade 3, and affluence levels. McMaster University Psychiatry Research Day. Retrieved from http://www.offordcentre.com/readiness/files/PUB.1.2004_Janus-Harren.pdf.

[41] Louisiana Department of Education. (2015). Early childhood. Retrieved from http://www.louisianabelieves.com/early-childhood

[42] Virginia Commonwealth University Center on Society and Health. (2014). Education: It matters more to health than ever before. Retrieved from http://societyhealth.vcu.edu/work/the-projects/education-it-matters-more-to-health-than-ever-before.html

[43] U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics< U.S. Department of Labor. (2015). Employment projections. Earnings and unemployment rates by educational attainment. Retrieved from  http://www.bls.gov/emp/ep_chart_001.htm; Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, The Economics Daily, Unemployment rates by educational attainment in April 2015. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/opub/ted/2015/unemployment-rates-by-educational-attainment-in-april-2015.htm; Pew Research Center. (2014). The rising cost of not going to college. Retrieved from http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2014/02/11/the-rising-cost-of-not-going-to-college/

[44] U.S. Census Bureau. (2015). American community survey and Puerto Rico community survey: 2014 subject definitions. Retrieved from http://www2.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/tech_docs/subject_definitions/2014_ACSSubjectDefinitions.pdf

[45] Pew Research Center. (2014). The rising cost of not going to college. Retrieved from http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2014/02/11/the-rising-cost-of-not-going-to-college/

[46] Ibid

[47] U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics< U.S. Department of Labor. (2015). Employment projections. Earnings and unemployment rates by educational attainment. Retrieved from  http://www.bls.gov/emp/ep_chart_001.htm; Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, The Economics Daily, Unemployment rates by educational attainment in April 2015. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/opub/ted/2015/unemployment-rates-by-educational-attainment-in-april-2015.htm; Pew Research Center. (2014). The rising cost of not going to college. Retrieved from http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2014/02/11/the-rising-cost-of-not-going-to-college/

[48] U.S. Census Bureau. (2015). American community survey and Puerto Rico community survey: 2014 subject definitions. Retrieved from http://www2.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/tech_docs/subject_definitions/2014_ACSSubjectDefinitions.pdf

[49] Child Trends Databank. (2014). Youth employment. Retrieved from http://www.childtrends.org/?indicators=youth-employment

[50] U.S. Census Bureau. (2014). American community survey and Puerto Rico community survey: 2014 subject definitions. Retrieved from http://www2.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/tech_docs/subject_definitions/2014_ACSSubjectDefinitions.pdf

[51] Bridgeland, J. & Milano, J. (2012). Opportunity road: the promise and challenge of America’s forgotten youth. Baltimore, MD: Annie E. Casey Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.aecf.org/~/media/Pubs/Topics/Education/Other/OpportunityRoadthePromiseandChallengeofAmericasForfottenYouth/CEopportunityroad2012.pdf

[52] Edelman, P., Holzer, H.J., Offner, P. (2005). Reconnecting disadvantaged young men: improving education and employment outcomes. Retrieved September 9, 2013 from, http://www.hewlett.org/uploads/files/ReconnectingDisadvantagedYoungMen.pdf

[53] Sims, Patrick. (2015). Reconnecting opportunity youth: Data reference guide. Retrieved from http://www.coweninstitute.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/Cowen_OY_Data_Guide_2015.pdf

[54] Ibid

[55] Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics. (2011). America’s children: Key national indicators of well-being. Retrieved from http://www.childstats.gov/americaschildren/eco3.asp

[56] Child Trends. (2013). Secure parental employment. Retrieved from http://www.childtrends.org/?indicators=secure-parental-employment

[57] U.S. Census Bureau. (2014). American community survey and Puerto Rico community survey: 2014 subject definitions. Retrieved from http://www2.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/tech_docs/subject_definitions/2014_ACSSubjectDefinitions.pdf

LEARNING

[58] The Boston Foundation. (2014). The Boston indicators project: Third grade reading proficiency. Retrieved from http://www.bostonindicators.org/indicators/education/4-8high-academic-achievement/4-8-2third-grade-reading-proficiency; The Annie E. Casey Foundation. (2013). Early Warning Confirmed: A research update on third-grade reading. Baltimore, MD: Author. Retrieved from http://www.aecf.org/resources/early-warning-confirmed/; Hanover Research. (2014). Critical academic indicators: What to look for in your students to ensure future success

[59] Foley, E., Mishook, J., Thompson, J., Kubiak, M., Supovitz, J., & Rhude-Faust, M. K. (2008). Beyond test scores: leading indicators for education. Retrieved November 21, 2013 from, http://annenberginstitute.org/publication/beyond-test-scores-leading-indicators-education.

[60] Louisiana Department of Education. (2007). Section 1: The integrated Louisiana education assessment program. Retrieved from http://www.doe.state.la.us/lde/uploads/11494.pdf

[61] Louisiana Department of Education. (2015). DIBELS next. Retrieved from http://www.louisianabelieves.com/assessment/dibels-next

[62] Ibid

[63] Dreilinger, D. (2013). Louisiana overhauling teaching goals, standardized tests in effort to raise the bar for students. Retrieved from http://www.nola.com/education/index.ssf/2013/03/louisiana_overhauling_teaching.html

[64] The National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education. (2010). Beyond the rhetoric: Improving college readiness through coherent state policy. Retrieved from http://www.highereducation.org/reports/college_readiness/gap.shtml

[65] National Center on Education and the Economy. (2013). What does it really mean to be college and work ready. Retrieved from http://www.ncee.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/NCEE_ExecutiveSummary_May2013.pdf

[66] Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers (PARCC). (2015). States: Participating states. Retrieved from http://www.parcconline.org/about/states

[67] Ibid

[68] Louisiana Department of Education. (2015). Parent guide to PARCC student reports. Retrieved from http://www.louisianabelieves.com/docs/default-source/family-support-toolbox-resources/parent-guide-to-parcc-student-reports.pdf?sfvrsn=2

[69] Samuels, D. & Dreilinger, D. (2015).  Common Core tests: About 1/3 of Louisiana pupils make ‘mastery’. The Times Picayune. Retrieved from  http://www.nola.com/education/index.ssf/2015/10/about_a_third_of_louisiana_stu.html

[70] Child Trends Databank. (2014). Student absenteeism. Retrieved from http://www.childtrends.org/?indicators=student-absenteeism

[71] Ibid

[72] Ibid

[73] Louisiana State Legislature. (2015). RS 17:233. Retrieved from http://legis.la.gov/Legis/law.aspx?d=80325

[74] Louisiana Department of Education. (n.d.). School performance score. Retrieved from http://www.louisianabelieves.com/accountability/school-perfor­mance-scores

[75] Louisiana Department of Education. (2014). Louisiana cohort graduation rate continues to increase. Retrieved from http://www.louisianabelieves.com/newsroom/news-releases/2014/07/11/louisiana-cohort-graduation-rate-continues-to-increase

[76] Louisiana Department of Education. (2015). High school performance. Retrieved from http://www.louisianabelieves.com/docs/default-source/katrina/final-louisana-believes-v5-high-school-performance.pdf?sfvrsn=2

[77] National Center for Education Statistics. (2014). Public high school four-year on-time graduation rates and event dropout rates: School years 2010-11 and 2011-12. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2014/2014391/

[78] Louisiana Department of Education. (2015). Title 28: Part LXXXIII: Bulletin 111-The Louisiana school, district, and state accountability system. Retrieved from http://doa.louisiana.gov/osr/lac/28v83/28v83.doc

[79] U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (1999). Immediate transition from high school to college. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs99/1999006.pdf

[80] Ibid

[81] Pew Research Center. (2014). The rising cost of not going to college. Retrieved from http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2014/02/11/the-rising-cost-of-not-going-to-college/

[82] Ibid

SPACE AND PLACE

[83] American Psychological Association. (2015). Effects of poverty, hunger, and homelessness on children and youth. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/pi/families/poverty.aspx

[84] Child Trends. (2015). Homeless children and youth. Retrieved from http://www.childtrends.org/?indicators=homeless-children-and-youth

SAFETY AND JUSTICE

[85] Child Trends Databank. (2015). Infant, child, and teen mortality. Retrieved from http://www.childtrends.org/?indicators=infant-child-and-teen-mortality

[86] Ibid

[87] Jutte, S. Bentley, H., Tallis, D., Mayes, J., Jetha, N., O’Hagin, O., Brookes, H., & McConnell. (2015)  How safe are our children? The most comprehensive overview of child protection in the UK. Retrieved from http://www.nspcc.org.uk/globalassets/documents/research-reports/how-safe-children-2015-report.pdf

[88] Swenson, D. (2015). New Orleans 2014 murders: Victims and case status. Retrieved from http://www.nola.com/crime/index.ssf/2015/01/victims_list_and_status_of_201.html

[89] Losen, D. & Skiba, R. (2010). Suspended education. Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved from http://www.splcenter.org/get-informed/publications/suspended-education

[90] Ibid

[91] Iselin, A.(2010). Research on school suspension. Retrieved from https://childandfamilypolicy.duke.edu/pdfs/familyimpact/2010/Suspension_Research_Brief_2010-04-27.pdf

[92] Smith, E. J., & Harper, S. R. (2015). Disproportionate impact of K-12 school suspension and expulsion on Black students in southern states. Retrieved from  http://www.gse.upenn.edu/equity/sites/gse.upenn.edu.equity/files/publications/Smith_Harper_Report.pdf

[93] Ibid

[94] Iselin, A.(2010). Research on school suspension. Retrieved from https://childandfamilypolicy.duke.edu/pdfs/familyimpact/2010/Suspension_Research_Brief_2010-04-27.pdf

YOUTH VOICE

[95] Jones, K.R. & Perkins, D.F. (2005). Determining the quality of youth-adult relationships within community-based youth programs. Journal of Extension, 43 (5). Retrieved from http://www.joe.org/joe/2005october/a5.php; Wu, H-C, Weiss, J., Kornbluh, M., & Roddy, L. (2014). Youth-Adult partnership rubric: A tool for professional development and program evaluation in youth settings. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University. Retrieved from http://cerc.msu.edu/yaprubric/

[96] Chen, P., Li, E., Milner, S., & Pareja, A.(2014). Youth city? You decide: An assessment toolkit for youth to measure youth civic engagement. Retrieved from http://www.youthcity.ca/sites/default/files/pdfs/CMNS-487-Youth-City-Report.pdf