Endnotes

The New Orleans Youth Index 2016

DATA LIMITATIONS AND CHALLENGES

[1] Gyan, Jr., J. (2016, October 6). Louisiana education activists declare victory in public records fight. Retrieved from http://www.theadvocate.com/baton_rouge/news/courts/article_76e860ca-8bd9-11e6-9963-cf5829bedcf3.html

ECONOMIC STABILITY

[2] National Scientific Council on the Developing Child. (2005/2014). Excessive Stress Disrupts the Architecture of the Developing Brain: Working paper 3. Updated Edition. Retrieved from http://www.developingchild.harvard.edu

[3] National Center for Children in Poverty. (2014). Child poverty. Retrieved from http://www.nccp.org/topics/childpoverty.html

[4] U. S. Census Bureau. (2016). How the Census Bureau measures poverty. Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/topics/income-poverty/poverty/guidance/poverty-measures.html

[5] Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics. (2011). America’s children: Key national indicators of well-being. Retrieved from http://www.childstats.gov/americaschildren/eco3.asp

[6] Child Trends Databank. (2013). Secure parental employment: Indicators on children and youth. Retrieved from http://www.childtrends.org/?indicators=secure-parental-employment

[7] U. S. Census Bureau. (2016). American community survey and Puerto Rico community survey: 2015 subject definitions. Retrieved from https://www2.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/tech_docs/subject_definitions/2015_ACSSubjectDefinitions.pdf

[8] Child Trends Databank. (2014). Youth employment. Retrieved from http://www.childtrends.org/?indicators=youth-employment 

[9] U. S. Census Bureau. (2016). American community survey and Puerto Rico community survey: 2015 subject definitions. Retrieved from https://www2.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/tech_docs/subject_definitions/2015_ACSSubjectDefinitions.pdf

[10] Bridgeland, J. & Milano, J. (2012). Opportunity road: The promise and challenge of America’s forgotten youth. Baltimore, MD: Annie E. Casey Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.aecf.org/resources/opportunity-road/

[11] Edelman, P., Holzer, H. J., & Offner, P. (2005). Reconnecting disadvantaged young men: Improving education and employment outcomes. Menlo Park, CA: Hewlett Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.hewlett.org/uploads/files/ReconnectingDisadvantagedYoungMen.pdf

[12] Babineau, K., Hand, D., & Rossmeier, V. (2016). No longer invisible: Opportunity youth in New Orleans. New Orleans, LA:  The Cowen Institute at Tulane University. Retrieved from http://www.coweninstitute.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/OY-Data-Guide-2016-Revised-FINAL.pdf

SPACE AND PLACE

[13] The Data Center. (2016, September 27). Who Lives in New Orleans and Metro Parishes Now? Retrieved from http://www.datacenterresearch.org/data-resources/who-lives-in-new-orleans-now/#housing-costs-and-affordability,-housing-stock,-and-commuting

[14] Ibid

[15] U.S. Census Bureau. (2016). American community survey and Puerto Rico community survey: 2015 subject definitions. Retrieved from https://www2.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/tech_docs/subject_definitions/2015_ACSSubjectDefinitions.pdf

[16] American Psychological Association. (2015). Effects of poverty, hunger, and homelessness on children and youth. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/pi/families/poverty.aspx

[17] Child Trends Databank. (2015). Homeless children and youth. Retrieved from http://www.childtrends.org/?indicators=homeless-children-and-youth

HEALTH AND WELL-BEING

[18] U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Infant mortality. Retrieved from http://mchb.hrsa.gov/infantmortality/

[19] MacDorman, M.F., & Mathews, T. J. (2008). Recent trends in infant mortality in the United States. NCHS data brief, no 9. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db09.htm

[20] Louisiana Department of Health, Office of Public Health. (2016). Louisiana health report card 2015. Retrieved from http://dhh.louisiana.gov/index.cfm/page/2298

[21] U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration, Maternal and Child Health Bureau. (2012). Child health USA 2012. Rockville, Maryland: U. S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from http://mchb.hrsa.gov/chusa12/hs/hsi/pages/lbwvlbw.html

[22] March of Dimes. (2014). Low birthweight. Retrieved from http://www.marchofdimes.org/baby/low-birthweight.aspx

[23] U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration, & Maternal and Child Health Bureau. (2013). Child health USA 2013. Retrieved from http://mchb.hrsa.gov/chusa13/perinatal-health-status-indicators/p/preterm-birth.html

[24] Behrman, R.E., & Butler, A.S. (Eds.). (2007). Preterm Birth: Causes, Consequences, and Prevention. The National Academies Collection: Reports funded by National Institutes of Health. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20669423

[25] Hamilton, B.E., Martin, J.A., Osterman, M.J.K., et al. (2015). Births: Final data for 2014. National Vital Statistics Report, 64 (12). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr64/nvsr64_12.pdf

[26] Louisiana Department of Health, Office of Public Health. (2016). Louisiana health report card 2015. Retrieved from http://dhh.louisiana.gov/index.cfm/page/2298

[27] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015). Protect your baby with immunization. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/features/infantimmunization/

[28] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015). Protect your child at every age. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/parents/downloads/vaccines-children.pdf

[29] State of Louisiana: Children’s Cabinet. (2015). Louisiana kids’dashboard. Retrieved from http://www.kidsdashboard.la.gov/

[30] State of Louisiana: Children’s Cabinet. (2015). Louisiana kids’dashboard. Retrieved from http://www.kidsdashboard.la.gov/

[31] Centers for Disease Control (2015, August 27). Childhood obesity facts. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/healthyschools/obesity/facts.htm.

[32] Shanklin, S., Brener, N.D., Kann, L., Griffin-Blake, S., Ussery-Hall, A., Easton, A., & Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2008). Youth risk behavior surveillance—selected Steps communities, United States, 2007. MMWR Surveillance Summaries, 57 (12), 1-27. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss5712a1.htm

[33] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2015, June 17). Physical activity facts. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/healthyschools/physicalactivity/facts.htm

[34] Ibid

[35] Wildsmith, E., Barrt, M., Manlove, J., & Vaugh, B. (2013). Adolescent health highlight: Teen pregnancy and childbearing. Retrieved from http://www.childtrends.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/Pregnancy-and-Childbearing-updated-12-131.pdf

[36] Louisiana Department of Health, Office of Public Health. (2016). Louisiana health report card 2015. Retrieved from http://dhh.louisiana.gov/index.cfm/page/2298

LEARNING

[37] U. S. Census Bureau. (2016). American community survey and Puerto Rico community survey: 2015 subject definitions. Retrieved from https://www2.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/tech_docs/subject_definitions/2015_ACSSubjectDefinitions.pdf

[38] Yazejian, N., & Bryant, D.M. (2012). Educare Implementation Study Findings—August 2012. Chapel Hill, NC: Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute, UNC-CH. Retrieved from http://eln.fpg.unc.edu/sites/eln.fpg.unc.edu/files/FPG-Demonstrating-Results-August-2012-Final.pdf

[39] Shonkoff, J.P., & Phillips, D. (Ed.). (2000). From neurons to neighborhoods: The science of early childhood development. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Retrieved from http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=9824&page=R1

[40] Offord Centre for Child Studies. (2012). School readiness to learn project: EDI factsheet. Retrieved from, http://www.offordcentre.com/readiness/EDI_factsheet.html.

[41] Janus, M., Brinkman, S., Duku, E., Hertzman, C., Santos, R., Sayers, M., … Walsh, C. (2007). The Early Development Instrument: Population-based measure for communities. A handbook on development, properties, and use. Toronto, CA: Offord Centre for Child Studies. Retrieved from http://www.manitoba.ca/healthychild/edi/edi_handbook_2007.pdf ; Janus, M., Harren, T., & Duku, E. (2004). Neighbourhood perspective on school readiness in kindergarten, academic testing in grade 3, and affluence levels. McMaster University Psychiatry Research Day. Retrieved from http://www.offordcentre.com/readiness/files/PUB.1.2004_Janus-Harren.pdf.

[42] Louisiana Department of Education. (2015). Early childhood. Retrieved from http://www.louisianabelieves.com/early-childhood

[43] The Boston Foundation. (2014). The Boston indicators project: Third grade reading proficiency. Retrieved from http://www.bostonindicators.org/indicators/education/4-8high-academic-achievement/4-8-2third-grade-reading-proficiency ; The Annie E. Casey Foundation. (2013). Early Warning Confirmed: A research update on third-grade reading. Baltimore, MD: Author. Retrieved from http://www.aecf.org/resources/early-warning-confirmed/ ; Hanover Research. (2014). Critical academic indicators: What to look for in your students to ensure future success. Retrieved from http://www.hanoverresearch.com/2014/08/26/critical-academic-indicators-what-to-look-for-in-your-students-to-ensure-future-success/?i=k-12-education&utm_source=K12%20-%20August%202014-%20Prospects&utm_campaign=K12%20jULY%20Prospects&utm_medium=email

[44] Foley, E., Mishook, J., Thompson, J., Kubiak, M., Supovitz, J., & Rhude-Faust, M. K. (2008). Beyond test scores: leading indicators for education. Retrieved from http://annenberginstitute.org/publications/beyond-test-scores-leading-indicators-education

[45] Louisiana Department of Education. (2007). Section 1: The integrated Louisiana education assessment program. Retrieved from http://www.doe.state.la.us/lde/uploads/11494.pdf

[46] Louisiana Department of Education. (2015). DIBELS Next Administrative Guide 2015-2016. Retrieved from http://www.louisianabelieves.com/resources/library/assessment

[47] Dreilinger, D. (2013). Louisiana overhauling teaching goals, standardized tests in effort to raise the bar for students. The Times Picayune. Retrieved from http://www.nola.com/education/index.ssf/2013/03/louisiana_overhauling_teaching.html

[48] The National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education. (2010). Beyond the rhetoric: Improving college readiness through coherent state policy. Retrieved from http://www.highereducation.org/reports/college_readiness/CollegeReadiness.pdf

[49] National Center on Education and the Economy. (2013). What does it really mean to be college and work ready. Retrieved from http://www.ncee.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/NCEE_ExecutiveSummary_May2013.pdf

[50] Louisiana Department of Education. (2015). Parent guide to PARCC student reports. Retrieved from http://www.louisianabelieves.com/resources/library/family-support-toolbox-library/family-support-toolbox-master-library

[51] Samuels, D. & Dreilinger, D. (2015). Common Core tests: About 1/3 of Louisiana pupils make ‘mastery’. The Times Picayune. Retrieved from http://www.nola.com/education/index.ssf/2015/10/about_a_third_of_louisiana_stu.html

[52] Child Trends Databank. (2014). Student absenteeism. Retrieved from http://www.childtrends.org/?indicators=student-absenteeism

[53] Ibid

[54] Louisiana State Legislature. (2015). RS 17:233. Retrieved from http://legis.la.gov/Legis/law.aspx?d=80325

[55] Losen, D. & Skiba, R. (2010). Suspended education. Montgomery, AL: Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved from http://www.splcenter.org/get-informed/publications/suspended-education

[56] Iselin, A. (2010). Research on school suspension. Retrieved from https://childandfamilypolicy.duke.edu/pdfs/familyimpact/2010/Suspension_Research_Brief_2010-04-27.pdf

[57] Smith, E. J., & Harper, S. R. (2015). Disproportionate impact of K-12 school suspension and expulsion on Black students in southern states. Retrieved from http://www.gse.upenn.edu/equity/sites/gse.upenn.edu.equity/files/publications/Smith_Harper_Report.pdf

[58] Iselin, A. (2010). Research on school suspension. Retrieved from https://childandfamilypolicy.duke.edu/pdfs/familyimpact/2010/Suspension_Research_Brief_2010-04-27.pdf

[59] Louisiana Department of Education. (n. d. ). School performance score. Retrieved from http://www.louisianabelieves.com/accountability/schoolperformance-scores

[60] Louisiana Department of Education. (2014). Louisiana cohort graduation rate continues to increase. Retrieved from http://www.louisianabelieves.com/newsroom/news-releases/2014/07/11/louisiana-cohort-graduation-rate-continues-to-increase

[61] National Center for Education Statistics. (2014). Public high school four-year on-time graduation rates and event dropout rates: School years 2010-11 and 2011-12. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2014/2014391/

[62] Louisiana Department of Education. (2015). Title 28: Part LXXXIII: Bulletin 111-The Louisiana school, district, and state accountability system. Retrieved from http://doa.louisiana.gov/osr/lac/28v83/28v83.doc

[63] Virginia Commonwealth University Center on Society and Health. (2014). Education: It matters more to health than ever before. Retrieved from http://societyhealth.vcu.edu/work/the-projects/education-it-matters-more-to-health-than-ever-before.html

[64] Bureau of Labor Statistics, U. S. Department of Labor. (2015). Employment projections. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/emp/ep_chart_001.htm ; Bureau of Labor Statistics, U. S. Department of Labor. Unemployment rates by educational attainment in April 2015. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/opub/ted/2015/unemployment-rates-by-educational-attainment-in-april-2015.htm ; Pew Research Center. (2014). The rising cost of not going to college. Retrieved from http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2014/02/11/the-rising-cost-of-not-going-to-college/

[65] U. S. Census Bureau. (2016). American community survey and Puerto Rico community survey: 2015 subject definitions. Retrieved from https://www2.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/tech_docs/subject_definitions/2015_ACSSubjectDefinitions.pdf

[66] Welbeck, R., Diamond, J., Mayer, A., Richburg-Hayes. (2014). Piecing Together the College Affordability Puzzle: Student Characteristics and Patterns of (Un)Affordability. MDRC. Retrieved from https://www.luminafoundation.org/files/publications/ideas_summit/Piecing_Together_the_College_Affordability_Puzzle.pdf

[67] U. S. Department of Education (2016). College affordability and completion: Ensuring a pathway to opportunity. Retrieved from http://www.ed.gov/college

[68] Ball, J. R. (2016, June 23). Ready or not, change coming to Louisiana TOPS program. Times-Picayune. Retrieved from http://www.nola.com/politics/index.ssf/2016/06/tops_louisiana_budget_cuts.html

[69] The Young Invincibles (2016). Young Invincibles Student Impact Project: 2016 State report cards. Retrieved from http://younginvincibles.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/YI-State-Report-Cards-2016.pdf

[70] National Center for Education Statistics. (1999). Immediate transition from high school to college. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs99/1999006.pdf

[71] Pew Research Center (2014). The rising cost of not going to college. Retrieved from http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2014/02/11/the-risingcost-of-not-going-to-college/

[72] Pew Research Center. (2014). The rising cost of not going to college. Retrieved from http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2014/02/11/the-risingcost-of-not-going-to-college/

[73] McConduit-Diggs, E., Govan, R.H., Washington, C. (2015). State of black New Orleans 10 years post-Katrina. New Orleans, LA: The Urban League of Greater New Orleans. Retrieved from http://www.urbanleagueneworleans.org/ul/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/StateofBlackNewOrleans_TenYearsPostKatrina.pdf

[74] Pew Research Center. (2014). The rising cost of not going to college. Retrieved from http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2014/02/11/the-risingcost-of-not-going-to-college/

[75] Bureau of Labor Statistics, U. S. Department of Labor. (2015). Employment projections. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/emp/ep_chart_001.htm ; Bureau of Labor Statistics, U. S. Department of Labor. Unemployment rates by educational attainment in April 2015. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/opub/ted/2015/unemployment-rates-by-educational-attainment-in-april-2015.htm ; Pew Research Center. (2014). The rising cost of not going to college. Retrieved from http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2014/02/11/the-rising-cost-of-not-going-to-college/

[76] U. S. Census Bureau. (2016). American community survey and Puerto Rico community survey: 2015 subject definitions. Retrieved from https://www2.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/tech_docs/subject_definitions/2015_ACSSubjectDefinitions.pdf

SAFETY AND JUSTICE

[77] Child Welfare Information Gateway. (2013). Long-term consequences of child abuse and neglect. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Children’s Bureau. Retrieved from https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubPDFs/long_term_consequences.pdf#page=7&view=Summary

[78] Committee on Child Maltreatment Research, Policy, and Practice for the Next Decade: Phase II; Board on Children, Youth, and Families; Committee on Law and Justice; Institute of Medicine; National Research Council. (2014). Describing the problem. In Petersen, A. , Joseph, J. , & Feit, M. (Eds). New directions in child abuse and neglect research (pp. 1-30). National Academies Press. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK195982/

[79] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). Child maltreatment: Facts at a glance. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/childmaltreatment-facts-at-a-glance.pdf

[80] Child Trends Databank. (2015). Infant, child, and teen mortality. Retrieved from http://www.childtrends.org/?indicators=infant-child-and-teen-mortality

[81] Jutte, S. Bentley, H., Tallis, D., Mayes, J., Jetha, N., O’Hagin, O., Brookes, H., & McConnell. (2015). How safe are our children? The most comprehensive overview of child protection in the UK. Retrieved from http://www.nspcc.org.uk/globalassets/documents/research-reports/how-safe-children-2015-report.pdf

[82] Swenson, D. (2015). New Orleans 2014 murders: Victims and case status. Times Picayune. Retrieved from http://www.nola.com/crime/index.ssf/2015/01/victims_list_and_status_of_201.html ; Torres, M. (2016). New Orleans ends 2015 with 164 murders, up after 2-year drop. Times Picayune. Retrieved from http://www.nola.com/crime/index.ssf/2016/01/2015_new_orleans_murders.html

[83] The Economist (2015, March 28). Children in Adult Jails. Retrieved from http://www.economist.com/news/united-states/21647347-treating-young-offenders-grown-ups-makes-little-sense-children-adult-jails; The Sentencing Project (2015). Trends in U.S. Corrections. Retrieved from http://www.sentencingproject.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/Trends-in-US-Corrections.pdf

[84] UCLA School of Law Juvenile Justice Project (2010). The impact of prosecuting youth in the adult criminal justice system. Retrieved from http://www.campaignforyouthjustice.org/documents/UCLA-Literature-Review.pdf

[85] Centers for Disease Control (2007, November 30). Effects on Violence of Laws and Policies Facilitating the Transfer of Youth from the Juvenile to the Adult Justice System. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 56, (RR-9). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/rr/rr5609.pdf

YOUTH VOICE

[86] Center for the Study of Social Policy. (2007). Engaging youth in community decision making. Retrieved from http://www.cssp.org/community/constituents-co-invested-in-change/other-resources/engaging-youth-in-community-decision-making.pdf

[87] Berkowitz, R., Moore, H., Astor, R., Benbenishty, R. (2016). A research synthesis of the associations between socioeconomic background, inequality, school climate, and academic achievement. Review of Educational Research. Retrieved from http://www.aera.net/Newsroom/Recent-AERA-Research/A-Research-Synthesis-of-the-Associations-Between-Socioeconomic-Background-Inequality-School-Climate-and-Academic-Achievement