Be sure to go to 2020census.gov to fill out the Census today! Check out our 2020 Census Resources for more information and real-time census participation rates in your neighborhood.

Endnotes – New Orleans Prosperity Index: Tricentennial Edition

 

ABOUT THE NEW ORLEANS PROSPERITY INDEX: TRICENTENNIAL EDITION, EXECUTIVE SUMMARY, & REFERENCE MATERIAL

1. Plyer, A., Shrinath, N., & Mack, V. (2015). The New Orleans Index at Ten: Measuring Greater New Orleans’ Progress Toward Prosperity. New Orleans, LA: The Data Center. Retrieved from https://www.datacenterresearch.org/reports_analysis/new-orleansindex-at-ten/

2. The Data Center. (2018). Who lives in New Orleans and metro parishes now? New Orleans, LA: The Data Center. Retrieved from https://www.datacenterresearch.org/data-resources/who-lives-in-new-orleans-now/

3. Campanella, R. (2007). An ethnic geography of New Orleans. The Journal of American History, 94(3), 704-715; Woods, C. (2017). Development drowned and reborn: The blues and bourbon restorations in post-Katrina New Orleans. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press.

4. The Company of the West was renamed The Company of the Indies in 1719. Caillot, M. (2013). A company man: The remarkable French-Atlantic voyage of a clerk for the company of the Indies. New Orleans, LA: The Historic New Orleans Collection.

5. Campanella, R. (2008). Bienville’s dilemma: A historical geography of New Orleans. Lafayette, LA: Center for Louisiana Studies, University of Louisiana at Lafayette.

6. Fussell, E. (2007). Constructing New Orleans, constructing race: A population history of New Orleans. The Journal of American History, 94(3), 846-855. Retrieved from http://blogs.nelson.wisc.edu/es112-305-2/wp-content/uploads/sites/96/2014/02/Population-History-of-New-Orleans.pdf

7. Greenwald, E. (2018). Introductory essay to the founding era exhibition catalog. New Orleans, LA: The Historic New Orleans Collection. Retrieved from https://www.hnoc.org/exhibitions/new-orleans-founding-era; Resendez, A. (2016). The other slavery: The uncovered story of Indian enslavement in America. Boston,MA: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

8. Palmer, V. V. (1996). The origins and authors of the code noir. Louisiana Law Review, 56(2), 5. Retrieved from https://digitalcommons.law.lsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=5617&context=lalrev; Sublette, N. (2009). The world that made New Orleans: From spanish silver to Congo Square. Chicago, IL: Lawrence Hill Books.

9. For a social history of these nineteenth-century migrations, see Hébrard, J. M., & Scott, R. J. (2012). Freedom papers: An Atlantic odyssey in the age of emancipation. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

10. Campanella, R. (2006). Geographies of New Orleans: Urban fabrics before the storm. Lafayette, LA: Center for Louisiana Studies, University of Louisiana at Lafayette.

11. Recent historical works examine exports, lines of credit, value of land and property, etc. to make the claim that New Orleans was among the richest and most important port cities in the world at the time – however these metrics are not directly comparable to modern metrics of economic strength such as jobs and unemployment rates. See, Morgan, P. (2014). Walter Johnson. River of dark dreams: Slavery and empire in the cotton kingdom. The American Historical Review, 119(2), 462-464; Baptist, E. E. (2016). The half has never been told: Slavery and the making of American capitalism. Hachette UK: Basic Books; Roy, T. (2016). Sven Beckert. Empire of cotton: A global history. New York, NY: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group; Beckert, S., & Rockman, S. eds (2016). Slavery’s Capitalism: A New History of American Economic Development. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2016.

12. Campanella, R. (2008). Bienville’s dilemma: A historical geography of New Orleans. Lafayette, LA: Center for Louisiana Studies, University of Louisiana at Lafayette.

13. Cassimere, R. (2018). The struggle for inclusion. The New Orleans Prosperity Index: Tricentennial Collection. New Orleans, LA: The Data Center.

14. Campanella, R. (2008). Bienville’s dilemma: A historical geography of New Orleans. Lafayette, LA: Center for Louisiana Studies, University of Louisiana at Lafayette.

15. Ibid.

16. Cassimere, R. (2018). The struggle for inclusion. The New Orleans Prosperity Index: Tricentennial Collection. New Orleans, LA: The Data Center.

17. Parilla, J. (2017). Opportunity for growth. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/metro_20170927_opportunity-for-growth-iedl-report-parilla-final.pdf

18. The Data Center analysis of U.S. Census Bureau, ACS 2016 data.

19. Plyer, A., Shrinath, N., & Mack, V. (2015). The New Orleans Index at Ten: Measuring Greater New Orleans’ Progress Toward Prosperity. New Orleans, LA: The Data Center. Retrieved from https://www.datacenterresearch.org/reports_analysis/new-orleansindex-at-ten/; City of New Orleans. (2014). African-American male unemployment report. Retrieved from http://www.nolaforlife.org/images/economic-opportunity/bmu-report_final_pages2/

20. This report determines that this increased income would generate additional local spending which would benefit New Orleanians writ large with 2,000 to 8,000 more jobs. Sage Policy Group. (2018). Economic impacts of an African American Renaissance in the Big Easy (forthcoming). New Orleans, LA: Greater New Orleans Foundation.

21. Liu, A., Anglin, R., Mizelle, R., & Plyer, A. (Eds.). (2011). Resilience and opportunity: Lessons from the U.S. gulf coast after Katrina and Rita. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.

22. Plyer, A. (2017). The Coastal Index 2017. New Orleans, LA: The Data Center. Retrieved from https://www.datacenterresearch.org/reports_analysis/the-coastal-index-2017/

23. Muro, M., Liu, S., Whiton, J., & Kulkarni, S. (2017). Digitalization and the American workforce. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/research/digitalization-and-the-american-workforce/

24. Plyer, A., Shrinath, N., & Mack, V. (2015). The New Orleans Index at Ten: Measuring Greater New Orleans’ Progress Toward Prosperity. New Orleans, LA: The Data Center. Retrieved from https://www.datacenterresearch.org/reports_analysis/new-orleansindex-at-ten/

25. Greater New Orleans, Inc. (2017). State of the sector: Digital media industry and related occupations. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/research/digitalization-and-the-american-workforce/

26. Thompson, R. (2017, November 13). Louisiana gives DXC technology major incentive deal for 2,000-job New Orleans expansion. The New Orleans Advocate. Retrieved from http://www.theadvocate.com/new_orleans/news/business/article_77fac5ca-c8a5-11e7-82df-17b5556a4811.html

27. Parilla, J. (2017). Opportunity for growth. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/metro_20170927_opportunity-for-growth-iedl-report-parilla-final.pdf

28. Ibid.

29. Kane, T. J., Orszag, P., & Gunter, D. L. (2002). State support for higher education, medicaid, and the business cycle. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/20021011.pdf

30. Plyer, A. (2017). The Coastal Index 2017. New Orleans, LA: The Data Center. Retrieved from https://www.datacenterresearch.org/reports_analysis/the-coastal-index-2017/

31. Parilla, J. (2017). Opportunity for growth. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/metro_20170927_opportunity-for-growth-iedl-report-parilla-final.pdf

32. New Orleans Business Alliance. (2017). Landrieu announces new business model for economic development delivered by NOLABA. Retrieved from http://www.nolaba.org/news-2/nolaba-network-economic-opportunity/

33. Parilla, J. (2017). Opportunity for growth. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/metro_20170927_opportunity-for-growth-iedl-report-parilla-final.pdf

34. Hsieh, C., Hurst, E., Jones, C. I., & Klenow, P. J. (2013). The allocation of talent and U.S. economic growth. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved from http://klenow.com/HHJK.pdf

35. Bureau of Governmental Research. (2015). The $1 billion question: Do the tax dedications in New Orleans make sense? Retrieved from https://www.nola.gov/dpw/documents/fix-my-streets/the-$1-billion-question/

36. City of New Orleans. (2017). 2018 annual operating budget. page 39. Retrieved from https://www.nola.gov/mayor/budget/documents/2017-budget/2017-adopted-budget/. The number is based on the amount of money categorized as belonging to the Public Safety Result Area. It is the total designated by all departments, affiliated agencies, and commissions and accepted by the administration and City Council as “public safety” spending across city government.

37. This report identified 65 weak cities that yielded 57 “weak city” metros because a few of the 65 cities were in the same metro area, New Orleans was deleted, and the metro area for one city (Newark, NJ) was omitted as it is part of the much larger and stronger New York City metro area. See, Vey, J. S. (2007). Restoring prosperity: The state role in revitalizing America’s older industrial cities. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Metropolitan Policy Program. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/20070520_oic.pdf

38. Denevan, W. M. (1992). The pristine myth: The landscape of the Americas in 1492. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 82(3): 369.

39. d’Iberville, Pierre Le Moyne, Sieur. (1991 translation of 1700 journal). Iberville’s Gulf Journals. R.G. McWilliams (Ed.), p. 63. University, AL; Bienville, Jean Baptiste Le Moyne, sieur de. (1932 translation of 1725 journal). Toward 1725: Continuation of the memoir of Bienville. In D. Rowland & A.G. Sanders (Eds.), Mississippi Provincial Archives 1704-1743: French Dominion, Vol. III, pp. 526-527. Jackson, MS.

40. Duval, K. (2006). Interconnectedness and diversity in ‘French Louisiana.’ In G. A. Waselkov, P. H. Wood, & T. Hatley (Eds.), Powhatan’s mantle: Indians in the colonial Southeast (133-162). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.

41. Usner, D. H. (2017). American Indians in New Orleans: Native communities were integral to the city’s foundation. In N. Dixon (Ed.), New Orleans and the world: The tricentennial anthology (13-16). New Orleans, LA: Louisiana Endowment for the Humanities.

42. Based on various primary and secondary sources, including: Kniffen, F. B., Gregory, H.F. & Stokes, G.A. (1987). The historic Indian tribes of Louisiana, from 1542 to the present. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press; Kniffen, F.B. & Hilliard, S.B. (1988). Louisiana: Its land and people. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press.

43. Usner, D. H. (2017). American Indians in New Orleans: Native communities were integral to the city’s foundation. In N. Dixon (Ed.), New Orleans and the world: The tricentennial anthology (13-16). New Orleans, LA: Louisiana Endowment for the Humanities.

THE NEW ORLEANS PROSPERITY INDEX: TRICENTENNIAL EDITION

1. Sohmer, R. R., & Jackson, D. (2005). Mind the gap: Reducing disparities to improve regional competitiveness in the twin cities. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Metropolitan Policy Program. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/research/mindthe-gap-disparities-and-competitiveness-in-the-twin-cities/; Berube, A. (2014). All cities are not created unequal. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution. Retrieved from http://www.brookings.edu/research/papers/2014/02/cities-unequal-berube

2. Berube, A., & Tiffany, T. (2004). The shape of the curve: Household income distributions in US cities, 1979-1999. Brookings Institution, Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy. Retrieved from http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/research/files/reports/2004/8/ useconomics%20berube/20040803_income.

3. Black, D., Kolesnikova, N., & Taylor, L. J. (2010). African-American economic progress in urban areas: A tale of 14 American cities. St. Louis, MO: Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. Retrieved from http://research.stlouisfed.org/wp/2010/2010-015.pdf

4. Juhn, C., & Potter, S. (2006). Changes in labor force participation in the United States. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 20(3), 27-46. Retrieved from http://pubs.aeaweb.org/doi/pdfplus/10.1257/jep.20.3.27; Lee, M. A. & Mather, M. (2008). U.S. labor force trends. Population Bulletin, 63(2). Retrieved from http://www.prb.org/pdf08/63.2uslabor.pdf.

5. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. (2018). Living wage calculator. Retrieved from http://livingwage.mit.edu/pages/about

6. U. S. Census Bureau. (2016). How the Census Bureau measures poverty. Retrieved from https://www.census.gov/topics/incomepoverty/poverty/guidance/poverty-measures.html

7. Shonkoff, J. P., Boyce, W. T., Cameron, J., Duncan, G. J., Fox, N. A., Gunnar, M. R., & Thompson, R. A. (2014). Excessive stress disrupts the architecture of the developing brain: Working paper 3. Center on the Developing Child, Harvard University. Retrieved from http://developingchild.harvard.edu/wp-content/uploads/2005/05/Stress_Disrupts_Architecture_Developing_Brain-1.pdf

8. National Center for Children in Poverty. (2014). Child poverty. Retrieved from http://www.nccp.org/topics/childpoverty.html

9. Repka, M. (2016). Enduring damage: The effects of childhood poverty on adult health. Chicago Policy Review (Online). Retrieved from http://chicagopolicyreview.org/2013/11/27/enduring-damage-the-effects-of-childhood-poverty-on-adult-health/

10. To the extent that production for local consumption can replace the need for imports, this economic activity also increases total production, sales, and income of firms within the region. For general information on traded industries and regional economics. See Hoover E.M. & Giarratani, F. (1999). How regions develop. In An introduction to regional economics. Retrieved from http://www.rri.wvu.edu/webbook/giarratani/chaptereleven.htm#11.3

11. The evidence for this relationship is that traded clusters are leading indicators of overall regional job growth or decline. For example, declines in traded industry employment and output typically lead regional economies into recessions and increases in such employment typically lead them into economic recovery.

12. U.S. Cluster Mapping. (2014). Clusters 101. Institute for Strategy and Competitiveness, Harvard Business School. Retrieved from
http://www.clustermapping.us/content/clusters-101

13. Ibid.

14. Plyer, A., Shrinath, N., & Mack, V. (2015). The New Orleans Index at Ten: Measuring Greater New Orleans’ Progress Toward Prosperity. New Orleans, LA: The Data Center. Retrieved from https://www.datacenterresearch.org/reports_analysis/new-orleansindex-at-ten/

15. Bertrand, M., & Mullainathan, S. (2004). Are Emily and Greg more employable than Lakisha and Jamal? A field experiment on labor market discrimination. American Economic Review, 94(4), 991-1013. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/3592802?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents; Pager, D. (2007). The use of field experiments for studies of employment discrimination: Contributions, critiques, and directions for the future. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 609(1), 104-133.

16. Porter, M.E. (2003). The economic performance of regions. Regional Studies, 37(6&7), 549-578. Retrieved from http://www.clustermapping.us/sites/default/files/files/resource/The_Economic_Performance_of_Regions.pdf

17. Plyer, A., Shrinath, N., & Mack, V. (2015). The New Orleans Index at Ten: Measuring Greater New Orleans’ Progress Toward Prosperity. New Orleans, LA: The Data Center. Retrieved from https://www.datacenterresearch.org/reports_analysis/new-orleansindex-at-ten/

18. Bertrand, M., & Mullainathan, S. (2004). Are Emily and Greg more employable than Lakisha and Jamal? A field experiment on labor market discrimination. American Economic Review, 94(4), 991-1013. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/3592802?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents; Pager, D. (2007). The use of field experiments for studies of employment discrimination: Contributions, critiques, and directions for the future. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 609(1), 104-133.

19. Plyer, A., Shrinath, N., & Mack, V. (2015). The New Orleans Index at Ten: Measuring Greater New Orleans’ Progress Toward Prosperity. New Orleans, LA: The Data Center. Retrieved from https://www.datacenterresearch.org/reports_analysis/new-orleansindex-at-ten/

20. Boston, T. D. (2006). The role of black-owned businesses in black community development. In P. M. Ong & A. Lou-kaitou-Sideris (Eds.), Jobs and economic development in minority communities (pp. 91–118). Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.

21. Delgado, M. (1999). Social work practice in nontraditional urban settings. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, USA.

22. Mayer, C. (2011). Housing bubbles: A survey. Annual Review of Economics, 3(1), 559-577. Retrieved from https://www0.gsb.columbia.edu/mygsb/faculty/research/pubfiles/5636/MayerHousingBubbles.pdf

23. Kijakazi, K., Paul, R. M. B. A. M., Price, A. E., Hamilton, D., & Darity Jr, W. A. (2016). The color of wealth in the nation’s capital. Retrieved from https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/85341/2000986-2-the-color-of-wealth-in-the-nationscapital_7.pdf; De La Cruz-Viesca, M., Chen, Z., Ong, P. M., Hamilton, D., & Darity Jr, W. A. (2016). The color of wealth in Los Angeles. Retrieved from http://www.aasc.ucla.edu/besol/Color_of_Wealth_Report.pdf; Muñoz, A. P., Kim, M., Chang, M., Jackson, R., Hamilton, D., & Darity, W. A. (2015). The color of wealth in Boston. Retrieved from https://www.bostonfed.org/publications/onetime-pubs/color-of-wealth.aspx

24. Rohe, W. M., & Lindblad, M. (2013). Reexamining the social benefits of homeownership after the housing crisis. Joint Center for Housing Studies, Harvard University. Retrieved from http://www.jchs.harvard.edu/sites/jchs.harvard.edu/files/hbtl-04.pdf

25. The Urban Institute. (2013). Exposing housing discrimination. Retrieved from https://www.urban.org/features/exposing-housingdiscrimination

26. Plyer, A., Ortiz, E., Turner, M. A., & Petit, K. L. (2009). Housing production needs: Three scenarios for New Orleans. New Orleans, LA: Greater New Orleans Community Data Center (The Data Center). Retrieved from https://gnocdc.s3.amazonaws.com/reports/GNOCDCHousingProductionNeeds2009.pdf

27. Ibid.

28. The U.S. Census Bureau. (2015). Historical reported voting rates. Retrieved from https://www.census.gov/library/visualizations/time-series/demo/voting-historical-time-series.html

29. Bishop, W. (2014). HB501. Louisiana State Legislature. Retrieved from http://www.legis.la.gov/legis/BillInfo.aspx?&i=224391

30. The Kaiser Family Foundation. (2017). Key facts about the uninsured population. Retrieved from http://kff.org/uninsured/factsheet/key-facts-about-the-uninsured-population/

31. Allen, E. M., Call, K. T., Beebe, T. J., McAlpine, D. D., & Johnson, P. J. (2017). Barriers to care and health care utilization among the publicly insured. Medical Care, 55(3), 207-214. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27579910

32. Beckles, G. L., Engelgau, M. M., Narayan, K. V., Herman, W. H., Aubert, R. E., & Williamson, D. F. (1998). Population-based assessment of the level of care among adults with diabetes in the US. Diabetes Care, 21(9), 1432-1438.

33. McBurney, P. G., Simpson, K. N., & Darden, P. M. (2004). Potential cost savings of decreased emergency department visits through increased continuity in a pediatric medical home. Ambulatory Pediatrics, 4(3), 204-208.

34. Barnett, J. C., & Vornovitsky, M. S. (2016). Health insurance coverage in the United States: 2015. US Government Printing Office. Retrieved from https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2016/demo/p60-257.pdf

35. Hall, A. G., Lemak, C. H., Steingraber, H., & Schaffer, S. (2008). Expanding the definition of access: it isn’t just about health insurance. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 19(2), 625-638. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18469432; Allen, E. M., Call, K. T., Beebe, T. J., McAlpine, D. D., & Johnson, P. J. (2017). Barriers to care and health care utilization among the publicly insured. Medical Care, 55(3), 207-214. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27579910 (includes discussion of discrimination as an important barrier to accessing care)

36. Norris, L. (2017). Louisiana and the ACA’s medicaid expansion. Retrieved from https://www.healthinsurance.org/louisiana-medicaid/

37. Kochanek, K. D., Arias, E., & Anderson, R. N. (2015). Leading causes of death contributing to decrease in life expectancy gap between black and white populations: United States, 1999-2013. National Center for Health Statistics.

38. Elliott, A. M., Alexander, S. C., Mescher, C. A., Mohan, D., & Barnato, A. E. (2016). Differences in physicians’ verbal and nonverbal communication with black and white patients at the end of life. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 51(1), 1-8. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2015.07.008; Cooper, L. A., Roter, D. L., Carson, K. A., Beach, M. C., Sabin, J. A., Greenwald, A. G., & Inui, T. S. (2012). The associations of clinicians’ implicit attitudes about race with medical visit communication and patient ratings of interpersonal care. American Journal of Public Health, 102(5), 979-987.

39. Bailey, Z. D., Krieger, N., Agénor, M., Graves, J., Linos, N., & Bassett, M. T. (2017). Structural racism and health inequities in the USA: evidence and interventions. The Lancet, 389(10077), 1453-1463. Retrieved from http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(17)30569-X/abstract

40. Cunningham, T. J., Croft, J. B., Liu, Y., Lu, H., Eke, P. I., & Giles, W. H. (2017). Vital signs: racial disparities in age-specific mortality among blacks or African Americans—United States, 1999–2015. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 66(17), 444. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/66/wr/mm6617e1.htm

41. Obtained from a merger of the City’s 2015 Call’s for Service data and Electronic Police Reports data.

42. Health Resources and Services Administration, Maternal and Child Health Bureau. (2012). Child health USA 2012. Rockville, Maryland: U. S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from https://mchb.hrsa.gov/chusa12/; Zeka, A., Melly, S. J., & Schwartz, J. (2008). The effects of socioeconomic status and indices of physical environment on reduced birth weight and preterm births in Eastern Massachusetts. Environmental Health, 7(1), 60.

43. Elliott, A. M., Alexander, S. C., Mescher, C. A., Mohan, D., & Barnato, A. E. (2016). Differences in physicians’ verbal and nonverbal communication with black and white patients at the end of life. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 51(1), 1-8. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2015.07.008; Cooper, L. A., Roter, D. L., Carson, K. A., Beach, M. C., Sabin, J. A., Greenwald, A. G., & Inui, T. S. (2012). The associations of clinicians’ implicit attitudes about race with medical visit communication and patient ratings of interpersonal care. American Journal of Public Health, 102(5), 979-987.

44. Rosenthal, L., & Lobel, M. (2011). Explaining racial disparities in adverse birth outcomes: Unique sources of stress for black american women during pregnancy. Social Science Medicine, 72(6), 977-83. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21345565; Kramer, M. R., & Hogue, C. R. (2009). What causes racial disparities in very preterm birth? A biosocial perspective. Epidemiologic Reviews, 31(1), 84-98. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4361938/

45. Smith, E. J., & Harper, S. R. (2015). Disproportionate impact of K-12 school suspension and expulsion on black students in southern states. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania, Center for the Study of Race and Equity in Education. Retrieved from https://equity.gse.upenn.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Smith_Harper_Report.pdf

46. Barrett, N., McEachin, A., Mills, J. N., & Valant, J. (2017). Disparities in student discipline by race and family income. New Orleans, LA: Education Research Alliance. Retrieved from https://educationresearchalliancenola.org/files/publications/111417-Barrett-McEachin-Mills-Valant-What-Are-the-Sources-ofSchool-Discipline-Disparities-by-Student-Race-and-Family-Income.pdf

47. Iselin, A. M. (2010). Research on school suspension. Document prepared in conjunction with the 2010 NC Family Impact Seminar, School Suspension: Research and Policy Options, held April 27, 2010, at the North Carolina General Assembly. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED540121.pdf

48. Pollock, J. (2017). Crime and criminal justice in America. Florence, KY: Taylor & Francis Group.

49. American College Testing. (2016). The condition of college and career readiness 2016: Louisiana key findings. Retrieved from http://www.act.org/content/dam/act/unsecured/documents/state19_Louisiana_Web_Secured.pdf

50. Louisiana Office of Student Financial Assistance. (2017). Qualifying for TOPS. Retrieved from https://www.osfa.la.gov/MainSitePDFs/QualifyingforTOPS_QnA.pdf

51. Louisiana Office of Student Financial Assistance. (2017). TOPS. Retrieved from https://www.osfa.la.gov/tops_mainlink.html

52. Louisiana Board of Regents. (2017). Minimum admission standards for first-time freshmen. Retrieved from https://regents.la.gov/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/Minimum-Stds-for-Admission-2017-1212.pdf

53. Board of Elementary and Secondary Education. (2018, February). Accountability and testing policy title 28, bulletin 111. Retrieved from http://www.doa.la.gov/osr/LAC/28V11/28v11.doc; Additional information on BESE policies can be found here: http://bese.louisiana.gov/documents-resources/policies-bulletins

54. American College Testing. (2016). The condition of college and career readiness 2016: Louisiana key findings. Retrieved from http://www.act.org/content/dam/act/unsecured/documents/state19_Louisiana_Web_Secured.pdf

55. Reeves, R., & Halikias, D. (2017). Race gaps in SAT scores highlight inequality and hinder upward mobility. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/research/race-gaps-in-sat-scores-highlight-inequality-and-hinder-upward-mobility/

56. Simon, C. J., & Nardinelli, C. (1996). The talk of the town: Human capital, information, and the growth of English cities, 1861 to 1961. Explorations in Economic History, 33(3), 384-413.

57. Day, J. C., & Newburger, E. C. (2002). The big payoff: Educational attainment and synthetic estimates of work-life earnings. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved from https://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/p23-210.pdf

58. Mishel, L., Bivens, J., Gould, E., & Shierholz, H. (2012). The state of working America. Cornell University Press. Retrieved from https://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1079&context=books

59. Glaeser, E. L. & Saiz, A. (2004). The rise of the skilled city. Brookings-Wharton Papers on Urban Affairs, 5, 47-94. Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.605.7588&rep=rep1&type=pdf

60. Holzer, H. (2009). Collateral costs: Effects of incarceration on employment and earnings among young workers. In S. Raphael & M.A. Stoll (Eds.). Do prisons make us safer?: The benefits and costs of the prison boom (239-268). New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation; Goffman, A. (2009). On the run: Wanted men in a Philadelphia ghetto. American Sociological Review, 74(3), 339-357.

61. Pager, D. (2003). The mark of a criminal record. American Journal of Sociology, 108(5), 937-975. Retrieved from https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/pager/files/pager_ajs.pdf; Solomon, A. (2012). In search of a job: Criminal records as barriers to employment. NIJ Journal, 270, 42- 51. Retrieved from http://www.crime-scene-investigator.net/NIJ-JobCriminalRecords.pdf

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63. Dumont, D. M., Allen, S. A., Brockmann, B. W., Alexander, N. E., & Rich, J. D. (2013). Incarceration, community health, and racial disparities. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 24(1), 78-88.

64. Mauer, M. (2011). Addressing racial disparities in incarceration. The Prison Journal, 91(3), 87S-101S. Retrieved from https://sentencingproject.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/Addressing-Racial-Disparities-in-Incarceration.pdf

65. Johnson, C., Laisne, M., & Wool, J. (2015). Criminal justice: changing course on incarceration. New Orleans, LA: The Data Center. Retrieved from  https://s3.amazonaws.com/gnocdc/reports/The+Data+Center_NOI10_Changing+Course+on+Incarceration.pdf

66. Ibid.